Transport Objects over RPC – GWT Object Serialization – Tutorial

Posted December 19th, 2007 by


GWT is a Java framework that allows you to easily develop AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) based web applications. This tutorial will teach you how to create and use Serializable objects that can be transported over GWT’s RPC mechanism. If you haven’t already please read our previous tutorials: Introduction to GWT, Anatomy of a GWT Project, and Building a GWT RPC Service.

To learn more about GWT, I recommend reading these good books – GWT Solutions, GWT Applications, AJAX Security.

GWT RPC and Serialization

One of the most important pieces of the GWT framework is the GWT Remote Procedure Call (RPC) mechanism. This RPC mechanism makes it easy for a GWT application client to make a call to server-side services. GWT RPC makes it simple to get data between the client and the server.

What is Serialization?

Serialization is the process of transmitting an object across a network connection in binary form. Because GWT RPC calls are between JavaScript and Java code, GWT provides object serialization as part of its RPC mechanism. Please note that GWT serialization is not the same as Java serialization.

Serializable Types

Any object that needs to be sent between the client and server has to be a GWT serializable type. A type is serializable and can be used in a service interface if the type:

  • is primitive, such as char, byte, short, int, long, boolean, float, or double;
  • is String, Date, or a primitive wrapper such as Character, Byte, Short, Integer, Long, Boolean, Float, or Double;
  • is an array of serializable types (including other serializable arrays);
  • is a serializable user-defined class; or
  • has at least one serializable subclass

GWT Serialization demo – The Contact List Application

A simple GWT application that gets a list of Contacts from the server will be used to demonstrate GWT RPC’s serialization mechanism. The Contact List Application is a simple GWT application where a user can click on a button to make a GWT service call to retrieve a list of contacts.

Creating a user defined GWT Serializable Class

A user defined class is serializable if:

  • the class is assignable to IsSerializable or, either because it implements one of these interfaces, or because it is derived from a superclass that implements one of these interfaces.
  • all the class’s non-final, non-transient instance fields are serializable
  • the class has a public default (zero argument) constructor

The heart of the Contact List Application is the Contact class. The Contact class consists of a HashMap of Strings that stores contact information. The HashMap key is a String that signifies the type of contact information, e.g. name, e-mail address, street address, phone number, etc. The Contact List Application’s client UI will consist of a display area and a button that allows the user to make a GWT service call to retrieve all the Contacts. The GWT service will return an ArrayList of Contact objects.

Type Arguments – How to make serializable Collections in GWT

Collection classes such as java.util.Map and java.util.List represent a collection of Object instances. To make collections serializable, you must specify the type of objects the collections are expected to contain. This is achieved through the use of a special Javadoc annotation: @gwt.typeArgs. This annotation is necessary to enable the GWT proxy generator to create efficient code. Defining the item type for a collection ensures that the collection only ever contains objects of that item type, or a subclass thereof. Be careful to only add objects of the asserted item type to a collection. Adding an object to a collection that violates its asserted item type will lead to undefined and anomalous behavior.

The code below shows you how to define and implement the Serializable Contact class. This demonstrates how to create a serializable user-defined class that has a Collection as a field. As you can see from the echoContactList method, there is no need to specify the name of the field in the @gwt.typeArgs declaration since it can be inferred.

   1: public class Contact implements IsSerializable {
   2:   /**
   3:    * HashMap that will always contain strings for both keys and values
   4:    * @gwt.typeArgs <java.lang.String, java.lang.String>
   5:    */
   6:   private HashMap contactInfo;
   9:   /**
  10:    * Default Constructor
  11:    */
  12:   public Contact() {
  13:     contactInfo = new HashMap();
  14:     contactInfo.put("name", "");
  15:     contactInfo.put("email", "");
  16:     contactInfo.put("address", "");
  17:     contactInfo.put("phone", "");
  18:   }
  21:   /**
  22:    * Method used to set the contact's name
  23:    * @param name  contact's name
  24:    */
  25:   public void setName(String name) {
  26:     contactInfo.put("name", name);
  27:   }
  30:   /**
  31:    * Method used to set the contact's email address
  32:    * @param email  contact email address
  33:    */
  34:   public void setEmail(String email) {
  35:     contactInfo.put("email", email);
  36:   }
  39:   /**
  40:    * Method used to set the contact's street address
  41:    * @param address contact's street address
  42:    */
  43:   public void setAddress(String address) {
  44:     contactInfo.put("address", address);
  45:   }
  48:   /**
  49:    * Method used to set the contact's phone number
  50:    * @param phoneNumber contact's phone number
  51:    */
  52:   public void setPhoneNumber(String phoneNumber) {
  53:     contactInfo.put("phone", phoneNumber);
  54:   }
  57:   /**
  58:    * Method used to get the contact's name
  59:    * @return  contact's name
  60:    */
  61:   public String getName() {
  62:     return (String) contactInfo.get("name");
  63:   }
  66:   /**
  67:    * Method used to get the contact's email address
  68:    * @return  contact's email address
  69:    */
  70:   public String getEmail() {
  71:     return (String) contactInfo.get("email");
  72:   }
  75:   /**
  76:    * Method used to get the contact's street address
  77:    * @return  contact's street address
  78:    */
  79:   public String getAddress() {
  80:     return (String) contactInfo.get("address");
  81:   }
  84:   /**
  85:    * Method used to get the contact's phone number
  86:    * @return  contact's phone number
  87:    */
  88:   public String getPhoneNumber() {
  89:     return (String) contactInfo.get("phone");
  90:   }
  92: } //end class Contact

The next step is to define and implement a service that returns a list of Contacts. The code below shows you how to define the service as well as how to annotate its method parameters and return types. As you can see, the parameter annotations must include the name of the parameter they are annotating along with the collection item type. Return type annotations do not need to include the name of what is being returned.

   1: public interface ContactListService extends RemoteService {
   2:   /**
   3:    * Method used to get a list of contacts
   4:    * @return  ArrayList of Contact objects
   5:    *
   6:    * @gwt.typeArgs <client.Contact>
   7:    */
   8:   public ArrayList getContactList();
  10:   /**
  11:    * Method used to echo a list of contacts. This method serves no real purpose other than to
  12:    * demonstrate how to annotate a service method.
  13:    * 
  14:    * @param listOfContacts contact list to echo
  15:    * @return  echoed contact list
  16:    * 
  17:    * @gwt.typeArgs listOfContacts <client.Contact>
  18:    * @gwt.typeArgs <client.Contact>
  19:    */
  20:   public ArrayList echoContactList(ArrayList listOfContacts);
  22: }

A Note about GWT RPC and Polymorphism

While GWT RPC supports polymorphic parameters and return types, it is best to try to be as specific as possible when defining service interfaces. Increased specificity allows the GWT Compiler to do a better job of optimizing your code and reducing the size of your application.

Does GWT support

Prior to GWT version 1.4, the GWT RPC mechanism only used the IsSerializable marker interface to denote serializable classes. However, as of GWT version 1.4, the GWT RPC system does support limited use of but with one specific condition. Please note that this GWT still doesn’t support Java serialization. Support for the interface was added to make it easier for developers to use existing code with their GWT applications.

The GWT Compiler generates a serialization policy file (.gwt.rpc file). The serialization policy file contains a whitelist of types that can be serialized. In order to enable support, you need to include all the types that your application will send over the wire in the serialization policy whitelist. The serialization policy file must be deployed to your web server as a public resource and needs to be accessible from a RemoteServiceServlet via ServletContext.getResource(). If the serialization whitelist policy file is not deployed properly, your GWT application will run in 1.3.3 compatibility mode and refuse to serialize types implementing

Contact list app screenshot



All the source code provided on this site is distributed under the Apache Open Source License v2.0.

  1. You can download the full source code used to build the Contact List Application here.
  2. You can download the WAR file to deploy the Contact List Application here.

Comments and Discussion

If you want to comment on this article, please click here.

Comments are closed.